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Dictionary Of Terms

Abduction
Movement away from a given line; outward movement of the arm, leg or foot.
Acromion
Part of the scapula projecting over the shoulder joint
Adduction
Movement toward a given line;inward movement of the arm, leg or foot.
Adipose Tissue
Fatty tissue found under the skin. Seen weel in fatty meat.
Ankylosis
Fixation of a joint usually by disease. It can be union by fibrous tissue or union by bone. Bony ankylosis is usually painless. Fibrous ankylosis may be painful and incomplete.
Anomalous
Imperfectly placed, irregular, abnormal. Inconsistant with what would be naturally expected.
Anterior
In front
Arthritis
Inflammation of a joint
Arthrodesis
Surgical fixation of a joint to immobilise it and render it painless in an optimum position
Arthroplasty
Surgical reconstruction of a joint to re-establish movement of a joint that has become fixed
Articulation
The attachment of bones to each other at a joint
Atrophy
A wasting away of bone or muscle or any tissue
Axial
Referring to the main axis of the body. The spine is the main axial structure
Axilla
The armpit, it contains large nerves and blood vessels
Blocking
Blocking is the process of covering a plaster cast or a wooden last with leather which has been soaked and rendered pliable so that it
Brachial
Refers to the arm
Bursa
A small pocket of connective tissue containing fluid; found at places where tendons pass over a bony surface or where skin is moulded over bone under pressure
Carpal
One of the small bones of the wrist; metacarpal, one of the long bones of the hand
Cervical
Relating to the neck
Chopart Amputation
An amputation of the foot consisting of a disarticulation through the tarsus, leaving only the os calsis and the astragalus. Intended to give end bearing
Collateral
At the side of, accompanying
Condyle
The rounded articular surface of a bone. Best seen on the lower end of the femur where there are two condyles
Co-ordination
Reciprocol adjustment of individual muscles when they work together to produce a movement of the joint
Disarticulation
Seperation at a joint. Amputationthrough a joint, the proximal part of the joint being left in the residual limb (stump)
Distal
Extreme; at the greatest distance from a central point or point of attachment. Peripheral
Dorsal
Referring to the back of the body or back ( upper side ) of the foot
Epiphysiodesis
An operation designed to destroy the epiphyseal line from which growth takes place in order to check the growth of bone in a child
Epiphysis
Cap at each end of long bone. In young people it is attached to the shaft by cartilage
Eversion
A turning outwards. Eversion of the foot - turning of the sole away from the mid-line of the body
Extension
Stretching out into line of two bones at a point
Facet
A small smooth area at the end of a bone
Fascia
A sheet of strong fibrous tissue enclosing a group of muscles or, under the skin, enclosing a whole limb, trunk or head
Flexion
The bending of one bone on another, e.g. the leg bent backwards until it almost touches the thigh, or the foot bent upwards towards the leg
Foramen
An opening through a bone or membrane to allow the passage of blood vessels and nerves
Fossa
A deep depression in a bone
Glenoid
The cup or fossa in the projecting part of the scapula into which the head of the humerus fits
Gritti-Stokes amputation
An amputation above the knee joint. The patella is preserved in a long anterior flap and, having a thin slice removed from its deep surface, is secured in apposition with the femur, the latter having been deprived of its articular surfaces by being sawn through the condyles
Hip joints
There are various types of hip joint and they are mechanical connections between tha socket or corset of an artificial limb and the pelvic band. They usually consist of steel forgings and an upper and lower segment connected by a joint which contains ball-bearings secured by a ball-race screw
Hyperextension
Excessive extension. Hyperextension of the natural knee is movement beyond 180 degrees, as by stretching of the ham-strings. or over-extension in the artificial knee, by stretching of the posterior check ligament
Hypertrophy
Overgrowth, increase in size
Hypo
Below, or beneath, opposite of hyper - upper or more
Inferior
Lower. Also towards the feet
Inversion
The act of turning inwards
Ischium
The lowermost of the principal bones in either half of the pelvis; the seat bone. In ischial bearing, tha weight of the body is supported in the rear wall of the of the top of the prosthetic socket, as on a bicycle seat
Kineplastic
A surgical procedure, performed on the muscle and / or tendons of a residual limb ( stump ) designed to allow active muscular movements to be transmitted to mobile parts of an artificial limb
Kinesthetic
Pertaining to muscle sense, giving information as to movement, contraction, position etc
Kyphosis
Hump back, exaggerated backward curve of the thoracic part of the vertebral column
Lateral
At the outer side of, the opposite of medial. A large metal cylinder housing a lateral, locking section which allows the forearm to be moved in a lateral plane so that the forearm can be brought across or away from the body
Ligaments
Fibrous connective tissue bands, either rounded or flattened, which hlod two or more bones together at the joints and hold cartilages to bones. Ligamentum teres in the hip joint, and capsular ligaments of the knee joint are good examples. Strong, flexible components fitted in the shin and thigh of artificial limbs prevent hyperextension beyond a predetermined limit
Lisfranc
A disarticulation of the metatarsal bones from the tarsus
Lordosis
Exaggerated forward curve of the lumbar spine so that it becomes more concave behind
Medial
Internal, towards the centre line of the body, as opposed to lateral
Neural
Pertaining to nerves
Osseous
Composed of bone
Palmar
Pertaining to the palm of the hand
Paralysis
Loss of muscular power due to injury to, or disease of, nerves, spinal cord or brain
Pectoral
Refers to the front of chest or thorax, hence the pectoral girdle, part of which, the clavicle, is attached to the breast bone
Perimeter
Outside limit or measurement of a surface or solid
Peripheral
At the surface or outside
Pirogoff Amputation
An amputation through the foot. A partial osteoplastic operation in which the os calsis is sawn through obliquely from above downwards and forwards, and the posterior portion is brought up and secured against the surface made by sawing off the lower ends of the tibia and fibula. Intended to give an end bearing residual limb ( stump )
Plantar
Pertaining to the sole of the foot
Posterior
At the back, the opposite of anterior
Process
An outgrowth, particularly of bone
Pronation
Position of the hand when turned palm downwards, the radius lies across the ulna, the opposite of supination
Prone
A body lying face down is said to be prone, opposite of supine when a body lies on its back
Proximal
Nearest to the body, the vertical centre line of the body, a point of attachment or some other point considered as the centre of the system
Rotation
The act of turning about an axis passing through the centre of a body, also rotation of the arm ( about its long axis )
Rudimentary
A part of an organ imperfectly developed as having no function
Sagittal
Pertaining to the antero-posterior median plane of the body ( sagittal plane ), the median vertical plane of the body dividing it into left and right halves
Scoliosis
Sideways curvature of the spine, vertebral column, either to left or right
Superior
In the upper position, the opposite of inferior
Supination
Position of the hand when palms are upward. The radius parallel to the ulna
Supine
A body lying on its back is said to be supine, the opposite of prone when the body lies face down
Syme's Amputation
An amputation at the ankle joint, the malleoli being sawn through and a flap made with the skin of the heel. Intended to give end bearing
Symphysis
The junction in front of the two halves of the pelvas
Transverse
Crosswise; at right angles to the longitudinal axis of body or limb
Trochanter
Bony prominence at the top of the femur
Trochlea
Shape like a pulley. Part of the distal end of the humerus is therefore called the trochlea
Ventral
The front or the abdominal side of an animal, opposite to dorsal
Vestigial
Part of an organ now degenerate and of little or no utility, but ancestrally well developed

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